9. Art, Literature and Music:


-The art advances during this time were hugely influential around the world

-All fields of fine arts relieved royal patronage

-architecture, metallurgy, sculpture, and painting were predominant art forms

-Iron, copper, wood, clay, stone, and various other materials were used for sculpture

-some iron statues still exist

-Hinduism was the predominant religion, and much of the art was influenced by this

-images of Hindu deities evolved (including Vishnu, Shiva , Krishna , Ganesha , and Durga)

-An 18 foot statue of one of the principle Hindu gods, the three-headed Shiva made during the Gupta rule, is located at the rock temple near Bombay. Each head is representative of Shiva’s roles (creating, preserving, and destroying)

-Many variations of Hindu temples were built during this period, all built with one hall and a tower.

-Temples at this time were starting to be constructed from more durable materials like stone and brick instead of wood. This laid the base for the medieval school of Hindu architecture

-Many temples remain in ruins (many in Uttar Pradesh State)


-All literature was written in Sanskrit

-Kalidasa considered the greatest writer of the time

-3 main genres of poetry 1.religious and meditative poetry 2.lyric poetry 3.narrative histories (most popular) and 4.Drama

- 2 famous pieces were written Panchatantra and Kamasutra

-The now amous Nalanda University in Bihar originated during Gupta reign


-Music was often incorporated into plays and stories

-Musicians were encouraged to create music and often received awards of money from the government