1. Climate and Geographic Factors:

-Located in the tropical and subtropical Indomalaya ecozone
-Southern climate is tropical while northern climate is more temperate and alpine

-Climate is greatly influenced by the variey of terrain (i.e. Regions of higher elevation received continuous winter snowfall while the Thar Desert attracts humid summer monsoon winds and rainfall.)
Upland plain (Deccan Plateau) to the south, deserts in the west, flood plains in south,
flat coast in the east (provided harbour opportunities - trade) mountain ranges, forest, and jungle, all prone to flood, drought, and monsoon.
Mountain ranges:
Despite the temperate zone in which the mountain ranges are located, the area is lush and subtropical because of humidity
-Himalayan, Hindu Kush, and the Patkai mountains
-natural barrier providing seclusion from attack/invasion
-protection from cold polar winds
-provided water to the rivers that originated there and the surrounding land

Flood plains: vast flood plains of the Indus River in the west and the Ganges in the east provided rich soil.
Bodies of Water:
-Southern region surrounded by three bodies of water: The Arabian Sea (south west), the Indian Ocean (south), and the Bay of Bengal (southeast).
- Many rivers and waterways (including Saraswati (now untraceable) and the water ways of the Indus valley-used for trade and commerce

Himalayan Mountains

Regions of Elevation