2. Events and Leaders:

Sri-Gupta (240-280 AD)
-Established Gupta Empire
with Patliputra or Patna as its capital
-Succeeded by his son Ghatotkacha

Ghatotkacha (280-319 AD)
-Established and ruled small Hindu kingdoms in Magadha and near modern-day Bihar
-Succeeded by son, Chandragupta

Chandragupta I (319-335 AD)
-Married Lichhavi, main power in Magdha and rulers of
Mithila (important ally for the gain of power & resources)
-Empire occupied whole of fertile Gangetic valley

-Established a realm from the Ganges River to Prayaga by 320
-Expanded his power by conquering much of Magdha, Prayaga and Saketa
-The first to be referred to as ‘Maharajadhiraga’ or ‘King of Kings’
- died in 335


Samudragupta
(335-376 AD)
-Succeeded father, Chandragupta I after death
-Expanded power by winning a series of battles
-Conquered the kingdoms of Shichchhatra and Padmawati early in his reign
-Conquered the kingdom of Kota
-Attacked tribes in Malvis, the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Maduras, and the Abrihas
-Incorporated over 20 kingdoms into his realm

-Did not try to incorporate any southern Indian kingdoms into his rule
-Upon his death his empire bordered with Kushan and Vakatakas in Deccan
-Titled himself as the King of Kings and world Monarch
-Practiced Hinduism and worshiped lord Vishnu

-Performed Ashwamedha Yagna (horse sacrifice ceremony) to show the importance of his conquest (this gave him the title
Maharajadhiraj, or supreme king of kings)
-Considerate of other beliefs (allowed SriLankan King to build a monastry)

-Largely involved in art and literature (was a poet/musician)
-Inscriptions on a pillar built in Ashoka give a description of his life


Ramagupta
-Son and successor of Samudragupta
-Captured by the Saka Satraps
-Succeeded by his brother (Chandragupta II)


Vikramaditya/Chandragupta II (380? - 413 AD)
-Son of Samudragupta, younger brother to Ramagupta
-Associated with many stories and legends
-Named after his grandfather (Chandragupta) but took title Vikramaditya meaning sovereign of power or
"The Sun of Power"
-During his reign, India saw great prosperity and wealth
-Married daughter of Naga cheiftans
-His daughter married Rudrasena, part of the powerful family of Vakatakas of the Deccan, gaining valuable ally
-Conquered and killed the king of the Kshatrapas, the Shaka (Scythian) rulers of Malawa and Saurashtra, western India, incorporated provinces into his empire
-Titled the epithets Shakari (destroyer of Shakas)

-Main opponent – Rudraismha III, defeated by 395 AD
-Had a campaign with Gujarat and Saurashtra until 409 AD
-Established a 2nd trading capital at Ujjain
-Supported Hindu art, literature, science, and culture
-Supported Buddhist and Jain cultures as well


Kumaragupta I
(413-454 AD)
-Son and successor of Chandragupta II

-Maintained his hold over the vast empire containing most of India (except for 4 southern states)
-Performed the Ashwamegha Yagna (horse sacrifice ceremony)
-Claimed to be Chakrawarti, king of all kings

-Supported art and culture, studied fine arts at ancient university Nalanda
-Pushyamitras in the Narmada rose in power towards the end of his reign and threatened his power